Prostate cancer

What is Prostate Cancer?

    Prostate cancer manifests in the prostate, a gland in males responsible for producing seminal fluid essential for nourishing and transporting sperm. It typically develops slowly, with many cases remaining localized within the prostate without causing significant harm. However, certain aggressive types can spread rapidly.

    Early detection of prostate cancer, while it remains confined to the prostate gland, offers the most favourable prognosis for successful treatment. While some forms may require minimal or no intervention, timely diagnosis facilitates effective management strategies.

Causes of Prostate Cancer

    The exact cause of prostate cancer remains uncertain.

    However, medical professionals understand that prostate cancer initiates when cells within the prostate undergo alterations in their DNA. DNA serves as the blueprint guiding a cell's functions. These alterations prompt the cells to proliferate and divide at an accelerated rate compared to healthy cells. Consequently, the aberrant cells persist and multiply, defying the normal cell life cycle.

    Over time, these accumulating abnormal cells merge to form a tumour capable of infiltrating adjacent tissues. Eventually, specific abnormal cells may detach and disseminate (metastasize) to distant areas of the body.

Risk factors

    1. Advanced age: The likelihood of prostate cancer rises with age, particularly after reaching 50 years old.

    2. Ethnicity: Black individuals face a greater susceptibility to prostate cancer compared to individuals of other racial backgrounds. Moreover, prostate cancer tends to be more aggressive or advanced in Black individuals.

    3. Family history: A family history of prostate cancer, such as a diagnosis in a parent, sibling, or child, can elevate your risk. Additionally, if your family carries genes associated with increased susceptibility to breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or if there's a strong family history of breast cancer, your likelihood of prostate cancer may be heightened.

    4. Obesity: Being obese may elevate the risk of prostate cancer, although research findings have been inconsistent. In individuals with obesity, the cancer is more likely to manifest aggressively and to recur following initial treatment.


    In its initial stages, prostate cancer may not present any noticeable signs or symptoms.

    As prostate cancer progresses, individuals may experience:

    1. Difficulty urinating

    2. Reduced force in the urinary stream

    3. The presence of blood in the urine

    4. Presence of blood in the semen

    5. Bone pain

    6. Unintentional weight loss

    7. Erectile dysfunction

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